This Vatican office was established to assist the drafting committees of the Second Vatican Council. Following the Council, Pope Paul VI made it a permanent dicastery of the Roman Curia.
In 1988, Pope John Paul II elevated the office to a Pontifical Council as part of the reform of the Curia in his apostolic constitution Pastor Bonus. In 2022, Pope Francis reformed the Curia again with his apostolic constitution Praedicate Evangelium. The office was renamed the Dicastery for Promoting Christian Unity.